Friday, August 21, 2020

Waste Management Practices Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Squander Management Practices - Essay Example In any case, they were insufficient to tackle the sterile issues of the ever-expanding age. The MSW age rate expanded from 2.7 pounds per individual every day in late twentieth century to around 4.5 pounds per individual every day (United States, 2002). It at that point settled to this sum because of different approaches and techniques for effective administration methodologies. The beginning of The Solid Waste Disposal Act and later, Environmental Protection Agency were two significant achievements, since they prompted talks and thoughts regarding waste removal which lead to decrease in age and appropriate administration. Source decrease was likewise one of the techniques sent by the United States. It meant to plan items that diminished harmfulness upon wastage and included reuse of items and treating the soil of yard trimmings. This incredibly diminished the age of MSW. Another strategy that managed administration of waste and decrease in MSW age is reusing, and the assessment demand. Reusing included reusing of plastic and paper †a technique usually utilized and elevated to date and expense demands prompted decrease in removal of waste. In this manner, these achievements have advanced in making an increasingly sterile, solid United States of

Sunday, July 12, 2020

Writing Dissertation

Writing DissertationWriting a dissertation is not as simple as writing a thesis or a dissertation summary. If you are able to do it correctly, your final draft can be impressive and even pleasing to read. The reader will look forward to what you have to say. The student will be able to be proud of the written work that is completed.A good dissertation should be structured properly. It should have sections that move in order in the dissertation, followed by sections which link one section to another. The sequence of the sections should be decided well in advance so that you do not get into an argument with your professor. Do not let your doubts and confusion prevent you from following the prescribed sequence.The first section should be headed 'Headings' and should contain a set of headings. Headings should be used so that the reader has to scan and read the entire document to get to the next one. As you go along, you will be introduced to other sections and they too should follow a st ructured format. Every section should come in order in a meaningful way. The original research should not be lost in the order of the sections.Due to our shorter attention spans, short paragraphs, and short sentences, we are less apt to read the whole document in one sitting. Our time will be better spent if we can find out as much as we can about a subject and make a mental note about it.It is important to make sure that you don't allow your original research to go unnoticed. Keep track of the data that you have collected from your research paper. In doing so, you will be able to come up with a list of questions that you need to ask the expert for clarification.You should always do an original research and not take any advice. If you have to take the guidance of someone who has done the same research before, you will always be in a better position to do justice to the research. Your advisor will appreciate this for making his or her life easier.The outline is another important part of the composition. If you are able to write a good outline, you should write the main body of the paper in the framework provided by the outline. The outline should help you achieve a linear flow and it should help you decide on how long the paper will be. The size of the paper and the number of pages will depend on the length of the outline.At the end of the thesis, you should always have a summary of the dissertation outline. It should be neat and clear. It should not be grammatically correct but it should be grammatically complete. You will get more benefit if the summary has more than one part rather than keeping all the information in one place.

Wednesday, May 20, 2020

What Is Genetic Engineering - 954 Words

What is genetic engineering? Genetic engineering is the modification of an organisms genetic composition by artificial mans, it often involves the transferring a specific traits- genes from one organism to the other- this could be a plant or an animal. It is the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genes- the genetic material. What is genetic engineering used for? It is used to change the genetic makeup of cells which spontaneously includes the transfer of genes within and across species. Genetic engineering is also used to mass produce insulin, human growth hormones, follistim (which is used for treating infertility), human albumin, monoclonal antibodies, antihemophillic factors, vaccines and many other drugs. Genetic engineering: †¢ Produces an unique set of genes †¢ Genes can be swapped/ exchanged across species Genetic engineering, sometimes also referred as genetic modification, it is the process of altering the DNA in an organism’s genome. This may mean changing one base pair (A-T or C-G), deleting a whole region of DNA, or introducing an additional copy of a gene. It may also mean extracting DNA from another organism’s genome and combining it with the DNA of that individual. Genetic engineering is used by scientists to enhance or modify the characteristics of an individual organism. Genetic engineering can be applied to any organism, from a virus to a sheep.Show MoreRelatedWhat Are Genetic Engineering?1634 Words   |  7 Pagesstrategies include endowment of nutrient supplements, enrichment of processed foods to contain more nutrient content, and enhancement of staple crops with increases essential nutrient contents, known as biofortification (Zhu et al., 2007). Genetic engineering (GE) has proven to be the consistent approach for biofortification due to the limitless diversity available within the specific gene pools of the staple foods and can, therefore, be implemented directly to cultivars without the complex breedingRead MoreWhat Is Genetic Engineering?1808 Words   |  8 PagesWhat is Genetic Engineering? â€Å"It is the group of applied techniques of genetics and biotechnology used to cut up and join together genetic material and especially DNA from one or more species of organism and to introduce the result in an organism in order to change one or more of its characteristics[.]† (Webster, 2015) The persons who discovered the structure of the DNA began with James Watson and Francis Crick in 1953. (DNAi, 2003) Since the discovery of the double helix strand many scientists beganRead MoreWhat Is Human Genetic Engineering?1193 Words   |  5 PagesHuman genetic engineering is currently a hot topic of discussion in the scientific world. What is human genetic engineering? According to the National Human Genome Research Institute, â€Å"Genetic engineering is the process of using recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology to alter the genetic makeup of an organism. Traditionally, humans have manipulated genomes indirectly by controlling breeding and selecting offspring with desired traits. Genetic engineering involves the direct manipulation of one or moreRead MoreGenetic Engineering Of Food Is Good For The Welfare Of Humanity1135 Words   |  5 PagesGenetic engineering of food is one of the most controversial issues facing the universe today. Genetic engineering or modification of food is the artificial modification of the genetic constituents of plants and animals that produce food (Union of Concerned Scientists, 2015b). Genetic engineering per se is often conducted in the laboratory through a number of technologies whose primary role is to incorporate the desired qualities into the genetically engineered food cr ops and animals. Even thoughRead MoreThe Importance Of Genetic Engineering1282 Words   |  6 PagesGenetic engineering is defined as the modification of the characteristics of an organism by altering its genetic material. Although the definition makes it seems clear and concise, it is far more complicated. This new advancement has caused a huge debate over the ethics and laws of what it is able to do. Genetic engineering is immensely important because of the potential benefits it contains and the advances it allows for in the future. The ultimate goal of genetic engineering is to prevent, treatRead MoreGenetic Engineering : Medical Perfection Or Playing God1280 Words   |  6 PagesThesis Statement â€Å"Genetic engineering differs from cloning in key ways. Whereas cloning produces genetically exact copies of organisms, genetic engineering refers to processes in which scientists manipulate genes to create purposefully different versions of organisms—and, in some cases, entirely new living things†, duplication of genetic cells is known as human cloning. Development of genetic engineering biotechnologies undermines the natural autonomy of life. Does genetic engineering interfere withRead MoreGenetic Engineering And The Human Existence1193 Words   |  5 Pages Why is genetic engineering crucial to the human existence? Initially, genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the process of manually adding new unique DNA into an organism. The objective is to add one or numerous new traits that are not already constructed in that particular organism. New DNA inserts in the host genome and immediately isolates and replicates the gene of interest by using molecular cloning methods to synthesize a DNA sequence; then inserting this construct intoRead MoreGenetic Engineering and a Brave New World1694 Words   |  7 PagesGenetic Engineering is one of the current hot button topics of our world today and its also the fundamental theme in widely know novels such as Brave New World and My Sister’s Keeper. But what exactly is Genetic Engineering? What exactly does Genetic Engineering entail? Genetic Engineering in its self is a mammoth and board field, yet not many people actually know or even understand the diversity that Genetic Engineering entails. When most people perceive the slightest sound of the word GeneticRead MoreGenetic Engineering Research Paper1584 Words   |  7 PagesGenetic engineering Explain how this technology works. Genetic engineering otherwise called genetic modification and can basically be described as the ‘direct manipulation of an organism’s genome’ which is the complete set of genetic material of an animal, plant or other living thing. This direct manipulation works by using modern DNA technology. This ‘involves the introduction of foreign DNA also known as synthetic genes into the organism of interest’ or curiousity. Genetic engineering does notRead MoreThe Controversy Of Genetic Engineering1369 Words   |  6 Pages Genetic Engineering, for most individuals not knowledgeable on the topic, conjures visions of sci-fi movies and humans being grown in a lab far off in the future. What more and more individuals in the early 21st century are coming to realize is that Genetic Engineering has already exceeded our wildest imaginations in a dark corner of a lab, outside of the view of the main stream public. Indeed, in 2017, genetic engineering is in full swing on both plant and animal life. Only from hearing

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Midsummer Night’s Dream by William Shakespeare - 1029 Words

Being that A Midsummer Night’s Dream is a Shakespearian comedy where passion is a significant theme. It is perceived in a variety of ways such as passion for revenge, recognition, and for love, which have the potential to blur the lines between the levels of social hierarchy. Shakespeare uses a variety of characters such as Helena, Nick Bottom, and Oberon to express the theme of passion and its significance in the play. Helena represents the passion for love in this text, as she runs after Demetrius into a forest seeking love between them, even after Demetrius has told her to stay away. This passion for love is significant to the play, because this play is displaying how love triumphs the social hierarchy, even though magic is a deciding†¦show more content†¦And I do not doubt but to hear them say, it is a sweet comedy. No more words. Away! Go, away† (IV.ii.38-41)! The theater is certainly magic, as its a place where anyone, even fools like Bottom, can traverse and accomplish in all the other areas of the world. Oberon possesses a passion for revenge. His hunger for retribution causes him to inflict a love potion on his wife, Titania. â€Å"Thou shalt not from this grove till I torment thee for this injury† (II.i.146-147). Not to make Titania fall in love with him, instead to make her fall in love with an animal to humiliate her and ruin her reputation as queen of all fairies. â€Å"When thou wakest, it is thy dear. Wake when some vile thing is near† (II.ii.33-34). This passion is the result of Titania devoting her attention to the little Indian boy instead of Oberon. â€Å"Why should Titania cross her Oberon? Do but beg a little changeling boy to be my henchman† (II.i.119-121). This passion of revenge is full of animosity and hatred as Oberon also wants this foster child to be servant of Oberon where the boy shall be forced to fight for Oberon and train as a knight where he will receive no love or be treated any different than other slaves of Oberon. Oberon’s rag e is also an example of hypocrisy as OberonShow MoreRelatedA Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeare1011 Words   |  4 Pages The play, A Midsummer Nights Dream, by William Shakespeare, demonstrates the difficulties of human love. Throughout the course of this play, all the lovers were confused, whether it be from the love potion provided by Oberon, the fairy king, or whether it be through natural terms, (those not affected by the potion). In this essay, we will be looking at how Lysander had agreed with this implication of human love being difficult, the scene where all the lovers are confused, and lastly, the timeRead MoreSociety in A Midsummer Night’s Dream by William Shakespeare1721 Words   |  7 PagesWilliam Shakespeare uses his word craft and characters as outlets addressing social issues, race, class, and or gender. Through his plays, he emulates the real world and is able to manipulate his worlds to allow his audience to see everything from all sides. I n A Midsummer Night’s Dream and discussed in â€Å"Jack shall have Jill;/Nought shall go ill† by Shirley Nelson Garner, in order for the world of men and patriarchal society and hierarchies to be secure and be well, the homoerotic relationships andRead MoreA Midsummer Night’s Dream by William Shakespeare Essay885 Words   |  4 PagesA Misummer Night’s Dream is a comedy play written by William Shakespeare. In this play there are multiple themes however the most evident theme is love. Why is love an evident theme? It is an evident theme because the play commences with two Greek mythology characters─ the Duke of Athens, Theseus and Amazon queen Hippolita planning their marriage. However as Theseus plans his marriage he has to help Egeus persuade his daughter Hermia to marry Demetrius. Unfortunately both the Duke and Egeus failedRead MoreA Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeare Essay2727 Words   |  11 PagesA Midsummer Nights Dream by Willi am Shakespeare The Course Of True Love Never Did Run Smoothà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Explain how Shakespeare demonstrates this concept of love in the play. Shakespeare often used his plays to explore different feelings and emotions. He has written tragic plays, humorous plays and romances. Shakespeare often uses love as a theme within his plays, this is shown in plays such as Romeo and Juliet, Much Ado About Nothing, Twelfth NightRead MoreMechanicals in A Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeare782 Words   |  4 PagesMechanicals in A Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeare The mechanicals consist of Peter Quince (a carpenter), Snug (a joiner), Nick Bottom (a weaver), Francis Flute (a bellows-mender), Tom Snout (a tinker) and Robin Starveling (a tailor). We first come across the mechanicals as they stumble into the woods to rehearse their play, for the Royal Wedding of Helena and Demetrius, and, Hermia and Lysander. This is when we realise that they are not very intelligent Read MoreA Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeare854 Words   |  3 PagesA Midsummer Night’s Dream â€Å"Lord, what fools these mortals be (Shakespeare, 1546)!† In the beginning of this play, Hermia refuses her fathers demands to marry Demetrius because she loves Lysander. Her disobedience enrages her father so he presents Theseus with his dilemma, which does not work as well as he had hoped (Gianakaris). Hermia is presented with two alternative options, but neither suits her well. She runs off into the woods with Lysander to get married and from this, a chain of events arisesRead MoreA Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeare1100 Words   |  4 PagesA Midsummer Night’s Dream is a Shakespeare-written play containing a five-act, play-within-a-play structure about the misunderstanding and confusion in love among other themes. Shakespeare paints Midsummer’s scenes into an imbalance of what’s real and fiction, dark or light. The play’s structure allows the audience to ask questions about the nature of Shakespeare’s society and of love itself. The tradesmen’s play-within-a-play functions as a developing comic relief between the main story line, asRead MoreA Midsummer Night’s Dream, by William Shakespeare1368 Words   |  6 PagesA Midsummer Night’s Dream A Midsummer Night’s Dream is an enchanting comedy that presents many dominant views widespread in the society of Shakespeare’s time. Ideas of love and romance are central to the play, and notions of gender and male-dominance prevalent at the time surface throughout the text. Modern audiences may find such notions confronting, whereas Jacobeans might find other elements of the play such as the rampant disorder, uncomfortable. Love is one of the central ideologies presentRead More A Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeare Essay2133 Words   |  9 Pages A Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeare In the second scene that completes Act I, we are introduced to an extraordinary group of familiar but outlandish comical characters that have been enlightened with the possibility of performing a stage interlude as part of the entertainment at the quick approaching marriage of Theseus and Hippolyta. ====================================================================== The Mechanicals are not only thought of asRead MoreThe Theme of Love in A Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeare1563 Words   |  7 PagesThe Theme of Love in A Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeare In A Midsummer Nights Dream, Shakespeare presents us with multiple types of love by using numerous couples in various different situations. For example: Doting loves, the love induced by Oberons potion and in some aspects, Lysander and Hermias love for each other; there are true loves: Oberon and Titania, Lysander and Hermia (for the first half at least, as Lysanders love switches to Helena temporarily)

Amazon Web Services Management and Sla Provisions

Questions: 1. Discuss the requirements for remote administration, resource management and SLA management. It may be useful to consider Morad and Dalbhanjans operational checklists for DSIs OSDS. This section should be no more than two to three pages in length. 2. Discuss briefly how you will consider application resilience, backup and disaster recovery for your chosen provider in relation to OSDS. This section should be no more than two to three pages in length. Answers: Executive Summary The contents of this report are based on the assessment of the management requirements and the existing service level agreement (SLA) provisions of Amazon Web Services (AWS). AWS provides a user friendly, flexible, and cost-effective cloud computing platform. Amazon Web Services have well defined best practices policy that an organization in this case, Department of Spatial Information (DSI) will have to follow so as to benefit from the cloud computing platform. AWS recommends that for an organization to be contented with the cloud computing services offered by different vendors, it is necessary that they consider carrying out an operational assessment before the launch of its application in this case, Online Spatial Delivery Services (OSDS) to the cloud computing platform. This can effectively be done using different operations checklists. The general operational checklists provided by Amazon Web Services include; the basic operations checklist that will enable DSI to evaluate the s pecific services and features of OSDS application before launching it on the cloud computing platform. The other operational checklist is the enterprise operations checklist which will help the DSI to establish an effective cloud migration and operation strategy before moving its application to the Amazon Web Services cloud computing platform. In general this report has outlined various AWS cloud computing requirements that DSI will have to consider before moving its OSDS to the platform. The assessment of these requirements will cover remote administration, application resilience, and resource management among other requirements. The report has also outlined a summary of the benefits and risks associated with the use of a cloud computing platform. Remote Administration This refers to the process of managing and controlling a computer from a distant (remote) location. The need to have more systems that are remotely controlled has been on the rise and this has led to an increase in the development of software that can be used to a system from a distance. To achieve this, an organization should consider having an effective network access strategy. Network access Computer systems hosting the Online Service Delivery System need to be connected via the internet so that they can be remotely managed and controlled. This will involve enabling the application on the client system and the IP address assigned to the host or the serve should be known. Based on Morad and Dalbhanjans operational checklist, DSI will have to ensure that there is connectivity from the organizations environment to Amazon Web Services. Therefore, an organization should ensure that it has the required hardware and software before moving to a cloud computing platform. AWS provides a variety of connectivity options that an organization can choose from. For instance, AWS recommends the use of two connectivity options that is, high availability option and fault tolerance. This ensures that the Online Service Delivery System is always running regardless of a fault occurring. In this case, therefore, for effective remote administration the DSI network access strategy should consider the following AWS requirements; It should incorporate the use of Amazon EC2 classic and Amazon Virtual Private (VPC) environments Have network connectivity and controls between DSI and AWS network It should make use of OS access controls such as Amazon EC2 security group rules, VPC network access control lists, and monitoring software configuration among others. Resource Management This is the effective utilization of an organizations available resources so that the stated objectives can be achieved. In this case, DSI should have an effective resource management strategy for the assets used in deploying OSDS on a AWS cloud computing platform. The strategy should be based on the Morad and Dalbhanjans asset management operational checklist. Asset Management This operational checklist requires an organization to have an effective mechanism of tracking and managing the resources deployed on AWS. This will consider the following; Determining whether DSIs OSDS internal asset management system will be integrated with AWS. Incorporation of the AWS existing asset management capabilities. SLA Management Service Level Agreement (SLA) outlines the terms of contract between a service provider such as AWS and a client in this case DSI (Fankhauser Schweikert, 2000, p.345). It is necessary to develop an SLA to be able to evaluate the performance and quality of services provided by a vendor. The performance of a cloud computing vendor may be measured in terms of; how available is the system, and the response time of the system (Wieder, Butler, Theilmann, Yahyapour, 2011, p.809). DSI should consider the provisions outlined in the Amazon Web service SLA before using its cloud computing platform. Application Resilience This is defined as the ability of an application to handle a failure in one of its existing components so that service provision is not impaired. This means that the application will still be running in the event of a failure occurring. It is therefore necessary for DSI to consider checking whether the Online Service Delivery is resilient enough before deploying it on the cloud computing platform. There are a lot of considerations for high availability (HA). This is done through the provision of different infrastructure building blocks that an organization such as DSI can consider implementing in its OSDS application. To achieve high availability, DSI application resilience strategy should include; the use of various availability zones within a given location, implementation of instance redundancy, and monitoring and recovery among other considerations. OSDS should have a mechanism of identifying and evaluating existing points of failure within a system so as that the systems availab ility is not impaired. The high availability strategy should not only define how a system will be recovered in case of failure but it should also outline the kind of testing to be conducted. Some of the Amazon Web Services considerations for high availability include; Execution of multiple Amazon EC2 instances in multiple availability zones Reservation of high availability capacity through the use of Amazon EC2 Reserved Instances. Backup and Disaster Recovery Backup refers to the process of safely keeping a copy of the files or databases so that no data is lost in case of system failure. This is usually done on a routine basis and as such DSI should consider having an effective backup system for the Online Service Delivery System before its launch on the cloud computing platform. On the other hand, disaster recovery describes the available security measures adopted by an organization to protect it from any negative effect (Velte, Velte Elsenpeter, 2009, p.781). Negative effect includes operations that endanger the activities of an organization such as cyber attacks, or system failure. Hence, DSI should develop a disaster recovery plan that will minimize the disruption of service once the OSDS application is launched on the cloud computing platform. In this case, the disaster recovery strategy should be based on the point of recovery and the time of recovery need to be outlined. Restrictions based on the distance between the main site and recovery site need to be well outlined in the recovery strategy. The disaster recovery strategy should not only outline how the system will be recovered but should also outline the testing procedures to be conducted so that the system is restored back to its initial state of operation. According to AWS operational checklist, a well-developed disaster recovery strategy will include; regional redundancy, and region-to-region recovery among other aspects. To use the AWS cloud computing platform, DSI should considered the following Amazon Web Services and techniques while developing the OSDS disaster recovery strategy; The OSDS application should be able to store data, and be able to execute additional instances in multiple AWS regions. The disaster recovery site should be reserved in a different location through the Amazon EC2 Reserved Instances The OSDS application should consider the use of Amazon Glacier to archive data OSDS should be able to take Amazon EBS snapshots to enable a quick recovery process in case of data loss. Earls SLA guidelines and AWS SLA Based on Earls SLA guidelines, an effective Service Level Agreement should include the following items (Grzech, Rygielski, Ã…Å ¡wiƦtek, 2010, p.623); The SLA should outline the availability of the cloud computing service. The cloud service provider should outline the quality of the services offered. The cloud provider should also state the available security levels that a client will benefit from The cloud service provider should also outline how they plan to store the clients data in the cloud. Using the above guidelines, Amazon Web Services has developed an effective SLA to ensure that its client benefit from its cloud services. The Amazon Web Service SLA provides the following; Amazon EC2 SLA This governs various policies that are used for billing and account governance. The policy is also used to determine the network access strategy for an organization (Murty, 2008, p.203) Amazon S3 SLA This is used to describe the policy used in Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) based on the terms outlined in AWS Customer Agreement. This outlines the data protection mechanism. Amazon CloudFront SLA This describes the policy that governs the use of Amazon CloudFront as outlined in the AWS Customer Agreement (Robinson, 2008, p.456). The policy is used to determine how the contents will be distributed. Amazon Route 53 SLA The policy is used to govern the path to be used while exchange data over a network. It can also be used in outlining the data recovery strategy for a given organization. Amazon RDS SLA The policy is used to govern the issues involving storage of data. In addition, the policy is also used to determine the data access strategy. In general, Amazon Web Services has clearly outlined the above SLA policies that an organization should consider before using their cloud services.. It is therefore, important for DSI to consider all these policies before launching its OSDS on the AWS cloud computing platform. Summary Amazon Web Service is a well established cloud service provider that offers a lot of benefits to its clients. In this case, if DSI decides to use AWS cloud computing platform to launch its OSDS application, it will have access to a wide range of opportunities such as security and data access, asset management, high availability, and data recovery strategies. Using cloud computing platform will reduce the organizations operation cost (Catteddu, 2010, p.10). However, the use of cloud services is associated with various risks such as data unavailability in case of system failure, loss of confidential data where the security is breached, and the business may be impaired where the vendor lacks reliable recovery plan. References Antonopoulos, N., Gillam, L. (Eds.). (2010). Cloud computing: Principles, systems and applications. Springer Science Business Media. Armbrust, M., Fox, A., Griffith, R., Joseph, A. D., Katz, R., Konwinski, A., ... Zaharia, M. (2010). A view of cloud computing. Communications of the ACM, 53(4), 50-58. Buyya, R., Broberg, J., Goscinski, A. M. (Eds.). (2010). Cloud computing: principles and paradigms (Vol. 87). John Wiley Sons. Catteddu, D. (2010). Cloud Computing: benefits, risks and recommendations for information security. In Web Application Security (pp. 17-17). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Furht, B., Escalante, A. (2010). Handbook of cloud computing (Vol. 3). New York: Springer. Fankhauser, G., Schweikert, D. (2000). Service level agreement trading for the differentiated services architectures. Computer Engineering and Networks Laboratory (TIK), Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zrich (ETH). Grzech, A., Rygielski, P., Ã…Å ¡wiƦtek, P. (2010). Translations of service level agreement in systems based on service-oriented architectures. Cybernetics and Systems: An International Journal, 41(8), 610-627. Krutz, R. L., Vines, R. D. (2010). Cloud security: A comprehensive guide to secure cloud computing. Wiley Publishing. Murty, J. (2008). Programming amazon web services: S3, EC2, SQS, FPS, and SimpleDB. " O'Reilly Media, Inc.". Robinson, D. (2008). Amazon Web Services Made Simple: Learn how Amazon EC2, S3, SimpleDB and SQS Web Services enables you to reach business goals faster. Emereo Pty Ltd. Wieder, P., Butler, J. M., Theilmann, W., Yahyapour, R. (Eds.). (2011). Service level agreements for cloud computing. Springer Science Business Media. Velte, T., Velte, A., Elsenpeter, R. (2009). Cloud computing, a practical approach. McGraw-Hill, Inc..

Thursday, April 23, 2020

The Empirical Project Turkey

Introduction The Republic of Turkey is a republican parliamentary democratic country with the population about 68,000,000 people. Possessing a great number of natural resources, manufacturing, agriculture and a range of services, having a good location and opportunities for maritime commerce, the economical potential of the country is successful. The modern borders of the country have been created in 1920, and it is located in the southern-western part of Asia and in the southern Europe.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Empirical Project: Turkey specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The country is influenced both by the European and Asian forces in cultural, political, and economical life. The country performs the functions of the balancing act, remaining open to the Middle East, it actively searches for the membership in the European Union. The country is a republic, but the president is elected. The economical si tuation in the country has changed as the crisis of 2008-2010 has not passed behind. Still, good potential and the desire to be a developed country have made it possible to start the economic recovery program (Sheehan 2004, p. 135). Fast industrialization of the country also contributes to the economical and political development of the country and its high value at the international arena. The main purpose of this project is to consider the political and economical situation in the country as the background for more detailed description of the following issues, economy in the business sector and the economic problems the country faces. Moreover, the fiscal and monetary policy stances are going to be discussed within the topic. Many financial factors, both at the national and at the international arena, influence the country development. Economical data in the country’s financial relations provides some impact on the micro and macroeconomics of the country. Executive Summary The paper examines political and economical situation and its influence on the country’s development. To have a full vision of the situation in Turkey, a number of different aspects are to be considered. The general situation in the political and economical life of the country is the best way to see the situation in the country and to analyze the general development and the opportunities the country has. The information devoted to the import and export shows the country’s capacities and the necessities. The general situation at the national and international market may be considered along with the information about the modern state of the industries and agricultural sector. The information about the economy and its place in the business cycle may help understand the level of business development and state the issues which should be addressed. The economic problems in the country may be identified and analyzed on the basis of the specific financial data. Fiscal policy s tance of the government and monetary policy stance of the central bank along with the discussion of bank’s independence is considered to be the focus of the analysis on the basis of the latest data taken from the up-to-date sources. Some data has been put in the table with the purpose to understand its influence on the micro and macroeconomic situation in of the country.Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Having been impacted by the international polices and national privatization and democratic facilities, the county has to cope with a number of different problems and at the same time meet the standards of the EU if Turkey wants to be its member. Background To understand the background for the country’s national and international development, it is important to check the political and economical situation in general, without referencing to the specific situations and financial activities. One of the main barriers on the way to successful development and functioning on the international arena has been the absence of democratic issues. When the whole world has entered the epoch of democratization and liberalization, Turkey remained under pressure of the Islam and the politics on the basis of this religion. The country had to suffer some hybrid regimes to achieve the democratic position is takes now. Ghanim (2009) is sure that â€Å"considering that legitimacy derives from people rather than from God is a huge step in the direction of political modernization and a serious commitment to democracy† (77). This is exactly what Turkey has made, it began to pay attention to human understanding of rights and now is a democratic country. The EU is considered to be the central force which made Turkey stand on the way of democratization and liberalization as the country development depends on it. The desire to become a member of the EU encourages Turkey to improve the economic situation and the relation to the human rights (ÇarkoÄŸlu and Rubin 2003, 192). The successful development of political situation and its neo-liberalism became possible only because Turkey has refused from the politics run in the Middle East and has created its own norms and principles. Some people call this politics ‘un-Islamic’ (Ghanim 2009, 76). Still, such politics has made possible for the country to become the candidate of EU which is considered to be the main step on the way to membership (ÇarkoÄŸlu and Rubin 2003, 208). The political changes have been supported with the economical recovery and improvement. The main principle of the economics in the country is competition â€Å"which possesses the institutional and political capacity needed to be able to provide the appropriate regulatory framework for an outward-oriented, market-based development (Onis 2009, 411)†. Having used the Washington Consensus as the bas is for the financial changes and having accepted the idea that political liberalization does not require from the state the change of legal and institutional acts, Turkey have faced the problem of inadequate functioning of the economical processes.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Empirical Project: Turkey specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The absence of the regulatory framework along with monetary and fiscal discipline resulted in three crises the country suffered from during different years (Onis 2009, 411). The economy of the country is on the way to recovery. Many attempts have been provided to make the economy of Turkey stable and developing. Analyzing the after-crises situation, it may be concluded that GDP is high, inflation is reduced as well as the budget deficit, the banking sector is significantly improved, GNP debt is large, but the tendency to its reduction are seen. The economy still depends on s hort-term capital, therefore, the risks of a new crisis is reduced due to the regulation of the banking system and better macroeconomic environment. Even though the export has increased, the current account deficit is large. In spite of the time-lag, inflows of foreign investment and privatization have significantly increased. The productivity has strongly improved and may be considered as the source of growth (Onis 2009, 422). So, the conclusion may be drawn that the general situation at the political and economical arena is stable and developing in the direction of the international market and relationships. Imports and Exports Turkey is heavily relied on exports, for which the economy was influenced by the economic crisis in 2008 (Economy Watch 2011). After the economic boom experience4 in the period between 2002 and 2007, Turkey’s trade, exports, and imports â€Å" were hit badly in the year 2008, when the trade deficit stood at 31%† (Economy Watch 2011). The relat ion between the amount of import and export and economic growth is positively correlated, i.e. the expansion of the volume of trade leads to an increase in employment growth and labor productivity. The main exports of the country revolve around clothes, automobiles, agricultural products, and electronics. Additionally, exports include natural resources such as iron and steel, oil, precious stones, and other (Economy Watch 2011). The most apparent impact of the economic downturn of the financial crisis can be seen in 2010, where until 2009, the number of the exports continued to grow, reaching its peak of almost $140 billion. As of 2010, the export number started to recover, but they nevertheless are far behind (Index Mundi 2011). Currently, the total exports stand at $117, 4 billion (Index Mundi 2011).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More When it comes to imports, the main imported commodities for Turkey include â€Å"electrical equipment, mechanical appliances, optical instruments, iron and steel, and pharmaceutical products† (Economy Watch 2011). Comparing imports and exports during the whole period between 2003 and 2011, it can be stated that Turkey suffered through a trade deficit, which can be seen through graph 1. In that regard, the decision to explore alternative markets though countries in Africa, Central Asia, and the Organization of Islamic Countries (OIC) is a wise decision. The results of such expansion can be seen through increasing Foreign Direct Investments and strengthening trade relations with Africa. Currently, Turkey’s imports stand at $166, 3 billion (Index Mundi 2011). Imports, Exports, and Trade Deficit (Index Mundi 2011, 2011) Comparative Advantages and Disadvantages The competitiveness of Turkey can be attributed to several comparative advantages it enjoys, of which several are natural, and others are handmade. In that regard, the country’s geographical location can be seen among the advantages the country enjoys and which contributes to the country’s tourism industry. Turkey’s natural endowment can be seen through the year-round sunshine, extended holiday season, ecological diversity, and others, all of which contribute to Turkey being a popular tourism destination (Europe CEIC Database Team 2011). In general, the assessment of Turkey’s competitiveness internationally was revealed to be limited to labor intensive and easily imitable research-oriented products (Utkulu and Seymen 2004). Revealed Comparative Advantages (RCA) of Turkey were identified in Utkulu and Seymen (2004) in seven groups of products, which cover seven product groups, including â€Å"clothing and clothing accessories; vegetables and fruit; sugar, sugar preparations, honey; tobacco; oil seeds and oleaginous fruits; rubber manufactures; textile yarn, fabrics and related products† (Utkulu and Seymen 2004, 18). The disadvantages, on the other hand, can be seen in advanced technology products, compared to the EU. It can be stated that the comparative advantages of Turkey in such sectors as textile and apparel industry are related are both natural and handmade, based on geographical location and labor. The disadvantages, in that regard, are based on capital and technology (Ä °NCE and DEMÄ °R 2009). Economy in the business cycle Having considered the economy from the point of view of business, it is possible to state the main strengths of the Turkey’s business are the climate and strong government. The EU has created a customs union which continues functioning. The influence of integration with the global capital market to the Turkish economy has been considered from two different sides. On the one hand, the benefit is seen in the sphere of business investment. On the other hand, the risks and vulnerabilities are too high as t he business sector becomes dependant from the foreign savings (Gonenc, Sahinoz and Tuncel 2010, 6). It is obvious that the changes in the country’s economy have influenced the business sector. Turkey has opened international investment policy that has led to the reduction of the real long-term interest rates. The tendency can be easily followed. Figure 1.1. Real long-term interest rates in selected countries (OECS 2010) Date Turkey 2001 49.86 2002 24.96 2003 20.76 2004 14.04 2005 7.89 2006 8.21 2007 11.71 2008 8.38 2009 6.28 The lowered interest rate for a long term period has become a good stimulus for the business development in the country. The dynamic development of the business sector after the crisis is considered to be the great opportunity for economy development. Turkey should direct business development in two directions, macroeconomic credibility and microeconomic efficiency. The better functioning of the business center may be achieved via the continuing modernization and improvement of fiscal institutions, updating the standing of the international market standing in Turkey, reinforcing the competitiveness of the country products at the national and international arena. The country should pay attention to the following issues while improving the economy in the business sector, maintaining equal price, structure capital inflows, and reduce the energy import dependency. It is important to regulate the legal situation and legalize the necessary acts and policies necessary for the appropriate business functioning (Gonenc 2010). Problems with the Economy One of the problems the impacts the economy of Turkey can be attributed to current account (CA) deficit. Current account deficit can be defined as the case when then spending of a country exceeds its income, i.e. the savings are little, of compared with investments (Sekmen and Calisir 2011, 166). It should be mentioned that it is not necessarily a sign of worry, with a c urrent account deficit. Nevertheless, a sign of worry might emerge when the current account deficit is accompanied by a continuously increasing deficit of the trade (Sekmen and Calisir 2011, 167). It can be stated that such case is applicable to Turkey. The account deficit experienced by Turkey is stated to be harmful to the Turkish economy by many economists and observers. Many of those economists even claimed that the deficit signs a new crisis for Turkey, similar to prior currency crises. The asymmetric increase in imports and exports experienced in September 2010 can be seen as an important factor in that matter contributing to the way current account deficit impacts the Turkish economy. The increase of trade deficit, reaching $6.7 billion, is almost 67% (Sekmen and Calisir 2011). The problem of trade deficit can be seen in relation to Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and GDP growth. A study of the relationship between GDP growth and microeconomic variables of FDI, trade, and infla tion, applied to the case of Turkey, revealed a negative relation between the coverage of the import coverage of exports, and GDP growth. That is, the higher the imports cover exports, the lower the growth of GDP (Erà §akar 2011). Another important finding can be seen related to the influence of the FDI supply in the country, and whether it is sufficient to guarantee an economic growth for Turkey. Study of the causal relationship among microeconomic variables such as money supply, real exchange rate, FDI, and trade balance for the period 1989-2009 showed that there is no direct relationship between FDI and output (Sekmen and Inancli 2011, 164). Such finding indicates another important problem impacting the ec0onomy of Turkey, which is an inadequate level of spending (Sekmen and Inancli 2011). Among the most recent events which implications can be seen influencing the economy of Turkey is the cut of the one-week repo rates, which indicates the move of the government to curb the infl ow of FDI into the country. The implications include the short term weakness of the lira (Monetary Policy Shift: Key Implications 2011, 3). Other than that, it can be stated that performance of Turkey is on track for recovery from the financial crises, although any deterioration of the economic environment in the next period will make Turkish economy vulnerable (Monthly review: August 2010 2010, 12-13). Among the positive notes that should be mentioned is also the recovery of confidence indicators, which nevertheless, did not reach the neutral threshold of 100 (Monthly review: August 2010 2010, 15). Fiscal Policy Stance The fiscal policy in Turkey should be viewed in the context of the budget deficit, which is the one of the main themes of the economic policy in Turkey. The stance of the government toward such issue can be seen favorable, according to an analysis of the period between 2001 and 2008. Despite the history of volatile inflation and budget deficits in the history of Turk ish economy, a study of the government expenditures and revenues in Ucal, Meltem, and Asli (2010) showed the fiscal policy in Turkey was sustainable through period from 2001 to 2008, which indicates the government’s adherence to its budget constraints during g the implementation of the programs of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (Ucal and Alici 2010). The most recent demonstration of the government’s stance of the policy is the fiscal rule which oblige the government to move toward a fiscal deficit of 1% of GDP in three years, given that GDP growth of 5% is achieved. Such issue can be seen two-fold on the one hand, the sustainability of the fiscal policy shows the government’s commitment, while the postponement in acceptance of the fiscal law can be seen as an evidence that â€Å"the government is not eager to commit itself to fiscal tightening in 2011† (Monthly review: August 2010 2010, 12). Although the postponement of the accep tance of the rule, might be seen as a political move in general, in the long term it does not change the trend established by fiscal policies adopted by the country during the last decade. An example of the latter can be seen through the fact that the October 2010 deficit being measured 31.4% lower than the deficit recorded during the same period a year earlier (Fiscal Improvement To Continue 2011). Thus, it is forecasted that the deficit will continue narrowing into 2015, and is projected to reach 1.9% (Fiscal Improvement To Continue 2011, 3). Monetary Policy Stance The implementation of monetary policy implies the bank’s use of tools to attain desired level of inflation and GDP growth rates. One tool can be seen through interest rates, which are efficient policy instruments for banks to use in their monetary policy (Khakimov, Erdogan, and Uslu 2010, 319). Other considerations paid by banks when developing monetary policy can be seen through inflation and price stability. Th e use of interest rates as a tool in the monetary policy is supported in Turkey, where a review of 2010 and the most recent shifts indicate that the central bank uses rates, namely, one-week repo rate as the main instrument in the financial system. In 2010, the bank maintained the same rate throughout, which aim can be seen through the decision to maintain the rates as they are, and keep them low. The basis of such strategy can be seen through the way inflation trends remained consistent, and thus, the bank made its forecasts, considering that the rate will not change during 2010 (Monthly review: August 2010 2010). At the end of 2011, the bank made the decision to cut interest rates, from 7% to 6.5%, with the aim of curbing the foreign short-term capital inflow. The expansion of money supply lowers interest rates, and accordingly, lower interest rates do not attract foreign capital looking for higher interest rates. The increase of the money supply depreciates the lira, in the short term, but, at the same time might act through increasing net exports and a decrease in trade deficit (Baumol and Blinder 2006, 386). Such policy can be understandable when combined with fiscal policy, where policy recommendations amount to tightening fiscal policy loosening monetary policy (Baumol and Blinder 2006, 389). Such combination acts so that the decrease in budget deficit does not slow economic growth, and thus, the monetary stimulus, which decreases interest rates, compensates the fiscal policy (Baumol and Blinder 2006, 398). Conclusion The present paper provided an analysis of the economy of Turkey. The paper started with providing an overview and a background of the country’s economic and political environment. An analysis of the countries important and export showed that despite of steady growth, which was only interrupted by the 2008 financial crisis, Turkey maintains a trade deficit, which can be attributed to inadequate spending. Additionally, the paper provi ded an indication of the comparative advantages of the country, which can outline the importance foreign capital and the reliance on exports as a source of money inflow. In that regard, the paper showed that the main problems influencing economy in Turkey are related to trade deficit, current account deficit, and budget deficit. The identified factors were found to be negatively correlated with GDP growth, which cannot be compensated by the flow of FDI into the country, given the current spending. The analysis of the monetary and the fiscal policy in Turkey revealed that the country chosen the right policy to pursue, which a contracting fiscal policy and a loosening monetary policy. Those policies will ensure that decreasing the deficit will not come at the expense of economic growth in the country. Thus, it can be concluded that the economy currently resides at the state of revival after the financial crises, already showing signs of steady growth that should be supported by the ad opted monetary and fiscal policies. The recommendations might include focusing on account deficit, and compensate for the coverage of the imports by importing intermediate goods, that should be used to increase production. Reference List Baumol, William J. and Alan S. Blinder. 2006. Macroeconomics : principles and policy. 10th ed. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South Western. ÇarkoÄŸlu, Ali̇, and Barry M. Rubin. 2003. Turkey and the European Union: domestic politics, economic integration, and international dynamics. New York: Taylor Francis. Economy Watch. 2011. Turkey Trade, Exports and Imports. Stanley St Labs 2011 [cited 12 Apr. 2011]. Available from Erà §akar, Mehmet Emin. 2011. Growth, Foreign Direct Investment, Trade and Inflation: An Empirical Application on Turkey. Middle Eastern Finance and Economics (9), Europe CEIC Database Team. 2011. Could Turkey Become To urism â€Å"Hot-spot† in 2011? Internet Securities, Inc 2011 [cited 12 Apr. 2011]. Available from Fiscal Improvement To Continue. 2011. Emerging Europe Monitor: South East Europe Monitor 18 (1): 3-3. Ghanim, David. 2009. â€Å"Turkish Democracy and Political Islam.† Middle East Policy 16 (1): 75-84. Gonenc, Rauf, Sahinoz, Saygin and Ozge Tuncel. 2010. Turkey’s improving integration with the global capital market: Impacts on risk premia and capital costs. 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OECS. 2010. â€Å"Economic Survey of Turkey 2010.† [cited 12 Apr. 2011]. Available from,3746,en_33873108_33873854_45958682_1_1_1_1,00.html. Onis, Ziya. 2009. â€Å"Beyond the 2001 Financial Crisis: The Political Economy of the New Phase of Neo-liberal Restructuring in Turkey.† Review of International Political Economy 16 (3): 409-432. Sekmen, Fuat, and Mustafa Calisir. 2011. Is There a Trade-off between Current-Account Deficits and Economic Growth? The Case of Turkey. International Research Journal of Finance and Economics (62), Sekmen, Fuat, and Selim Inancli. 2011. Foreign Direct Investment, Trade Balance and Domestic Performance in Turkey: A Causality Analysis. Middle Eastern Finance and Economics (10), Sheehan, Sean. 2004. Turkey. Singapore: Marshall Cavendish. Ucal, Meltem, and Asli Alici. 2010. Is Fiscal Policy Sustainable in Turkey? Emerging Markets Finance and Trade 46:89-93. Utkulu, Utku, and Dilek Seymen. 2004. Revealed Comparative Advantage and Competitiveness: Evidence for Turkey vis-à  -vis the EU/15. In European Trade Study Group 6th Annual Conf erence. Nottingham: ETSG. Title Date Analysis Source Turkey’s benchmark rate cutspurs selloff in financial stocks 22.01.2011 The lowering of lira’s value leads to the increase of the dolar in the country and reduction of the ecnomic activities. At the same time, the central bank has an opportunity to raise reserve requirements with the purpose to slow credic growth. Some call this event a buying opportunity, but it is too early to judge. The trade appears at risk. â€Å"Turkey’s benchmark rate cutspurs selloff in financial stocks.† 2011. Gulf News, January 22. Turkey: An Exception In The Middle East 11.02.2011 The information presented in this article helps us understand that the situation in Turkey is rather positive in the comparison with other countries in the Middle East. Turkey way to the internation market has been smooth and progressive, while others countries have to do everything fast and without specific system. Furthermore, the successfu l geographical position may be really useful for the country development and leadership among the countries in the Middle East Jin, Zhong. 2011. â€Å"Turkey: An Exception In The Middle East.† San Francisco Chronicle, February 11. January CAD surges 91.4 pct to reach $5.86 bln 12.03.2011 Turkey has faced the problem that its current account deficit has increased on 91.4% in March. The main outcome this problem may lead to is the reduction of the foreign trade and the trade deficit in general. Tourism business suffers mostly as it is considered to be one of the main international opportunities the country can offer. The increase of the tourism revenue is going to be put on the customers’ shoulders who may refuse to visit Turkey for high prices which are considered to be unfairly increased. â€Å"January CAD surges 91.4 pct to reach $5.86 bln.† 2011. Today’s Zaman, March 12. Turkey bonds rally as oil prices slump 17.03.2011 The oil prices slumped 4.5% o n March 16 and it led to the unstable situation of Turkey at the international market. The reduction of oil price may lead to the chaos at the global arena that is sire to slower the economic growth in the country. Turkey’s lira is predicted to increase if the change of the prices of il are going to jump for raising to lowering. â€Å"Turkey bonds rally as oil prices slump.† 2011. The Gulf Today, March 17. Turkish exporters to get $300 mln in World Bank loan 19.03.2011 If Turkey manages to get the loan of $300 million, it will be able to complete the Turkey’s export program directed at helping the exporters to expand capacity and improve competitiveness at the international market. The capacity of banks is also going to continue developing. The leasing companies will be able to offer loans for the companies which deal with exporting products. The World bank is going to provide loan for a long term period, so the country will have an opportunity to settle busin ess and then pay its debt. â€Å"Turkish exporters to get $300 mln in World Bank loan.† 2011. Today’s Zaman, March 19. Turkish CB keeps interest rates steady in Sept 19.01.2011 The article discusses the decision of the central bank in Turkey to keep the interest rates on hold. Considering the date the article was issued, the article shows the commitment of the bank that was established during the 2010 to keep the rates at the same pace, and decrease them in 2011. Eventually, the bank decreased the rates. Hurriet. 2011. Turkish CB keeps interest rates steady in Sept. Hurriet -Daily 2011 [cited 19 Jan. 2011]. Available from OECD releases glowing figures for Turkey’s growth, inflation levels. 30.01.2011 A statement by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in which it predicts continual growth for Turkey, over the next five years. The prediction also covers a higher gr owth rate than the other European country. Considering the implemented policies, those predictions hold true, while an analysis of the inflation rate for the period between January and April show a downward trend. Hurriet. 2011. OECD releases glowing figures for Turkey’s growth, inflation levels. Hurriet -Daily 2011 [cited 30 Jan. 2011]. Available from Turkey’s inflation rate set to rise to double-digit figures 05.02.2011 An article in which the Turkish Statistical Institute argue that the inflation rate in Turkey will as high as 10.4 % in a year, after a 9.7 April. As of March the inflation rate remained at 4%. Hurriet. 2011. Turkey’s inflation rate set to rise to double-digit figures. Hurriet -Daily 2011 [cited 7 Feb. 2011]. Available from Turkey Leaves Rates on Hold 15.02.2011 The article follows with the bank†™s decision to hold the rates on hold, after the predicted cuts that were successful for two months. The nmain aim is discouraging money flow, which appear to be consistent with the lira deppreciation. Oz, Erkan. 2011. Turkey Leaves Rates on Hold. Market Watch 2011 [cited 16 Feb. 2011]. Available from Turkey’s foreign direct investments fall 45.5 pct in Jan-Jun term 03.03.2011 A report on a record breaking inflation rate in Turkey, which puts the need for Bank to increase interest rates. Hurriet. 2011. Turkey’s foreign direct investments fall 45.5 pct in Jan-Jun term. Hurriet -Daily 2011 [cited 3 Mar. 2011]. Available from Record low inflation takes heat off Turkey’s 04.04.2011 A report of the fall of the numbers of direct investments, which supports the intention of the bank to cut the inflow of foreign inv estments through decreasing interest rates. Reuters News. 2011. Record low inflation takes heat off Turkey’s 3. Thomson Reuters 2011 [cited 4 Apr. 2011]. Available from This essay on The Empirical Project: Turkey was written and submitted by user Autumn Witt to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.